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Drug Discovery Assays Catalog

Available Assays:

 

Vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries (5-HT receptor – 5-HT)

Reference Number: B003

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: 5-HT
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries (Opioid and opioid-like receptors)

Reference Number: B004

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy)
Target: Opioid & opioid-like receptors
Control Compound: Mephedrone
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with mephedrone as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries (Angiotensin receptor)

Reference Number: B007

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy)
Target: Angiotensin receptor
Control Compound: Angiotensin II
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary artries with angiotensin II as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries (Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors)

Reference Number: B008

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy)
Target: Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors
Control Compound: 8-arginine vasopressin
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 8-arginine vasopressin as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium.

Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasodilatation in human chorionic plate arteries (PDE5)

Reference Number: B009

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Chorionic Plate Arteries (Pre-Eclamptic)
Target: PDE5
Control Compound: Sildenafil
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human placenta vessels with sildenafil as a reference compound.

Chorionic plate arteries supply blood and nutrients to the growing foetus making them essential for healthy development. Any disruption to blood flow can cause adverse effects to the foetus.

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Vasodilatation in human chorionic plate arteries (Bradykinin receptor)

Reference Number: B010

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Chorionic Plate Arteries (Healthy)
Target: Bradykinin receptor
Control Compound: Bradykinin
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human chorionic plate arteries with bradykinin as a reference compound.

Chorionic plate arteries supply blood and nutrients to the growing foetus making them essential for healthy development. Any disruption to blood flow can cause adverse effects to the foetus.

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Vasodilatation in human pre-eclamptic chorionic plate arteries (PDE5)

Reference Number: B011

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Chorionic Plate Arteries (Pre-Eclamptic)
Target: PDE5
Control Compound: Sildenafil
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in pre-eclamptic human chorionic plate arteries with sildenafil as a reference compound.

Chorionic plate arteries supply blood and nutrients to the growing foetus making them essential for healthy development. Any disruption to blood flow can cause adverse effects to the foetus. Pre-eclampsia is characterised by reduced maternal-foetal blood flow, causing potential health risks to both mother and foetus.

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Vasodilatation in human pre-eclamptic chorionic plate arteries (Bradykinin receptor)

Reference Number: B012

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Chorionic Plate Arteries (Pre-Eclamptic)
Target: Bradykinin receptor
Control Compound: Bradykinin
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in pre-eclamptic human placenta vessels with bradykinin as a reference compound.

Chorionic plate arteries supply blood and nutrients to the growing foetus making them essential for healthy development. Any disruption to blood flow can cause adverse effects to the foetus. Pre-eclampsia is characterised by reduced maternal-foetal blood flow, causing potential health risks to both mother and foetus.

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Vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Acetylcholine receptor)

Reference Number: B016

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Acetylcholine
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with acetycholine (ACh) as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors)

Reference Number: B017

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors
Control Compound: Desmopressin
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Nitric oxide donor)

Reference Number: B019

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Nitric oxide donor
Control Compound: SNP
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Adrenoceptor)

Reference Number: B020

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Phenylephrine
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with phenylephrine as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Prostanoid receptor)

Reference Number: B021

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Prostanoid receptor
Control Compound: U46619
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with U46619 as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasodilatation in ischaemic human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Bradykinin receptor)

Reference Number: B022

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Ischaemic)
Target: Bradykinin receptor
Control Compound: Bradykinin
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in ischaemic human subcutaneous resistance arteries with bradykinin as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ-specific blood flow throughout the body and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Ischaemia is a period of time with restricted blood flow, which can potentially lead to irreversible tissue. Ischeamia can be caused by a variety of disorders such as atherosclerosis, tachycardia or hypotension. Biopta can source arteries from tissues that have been exposed to these conditions.

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Vasoconstriction in human saphenous vein (5-HT receptor)

Reference Number: B023

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Saphenous Vein (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: Sumatriptan
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human saphenous vein with sumatriptan as a reference compound.

The venous system is involved in returning blood back to the heart from tissues. The venous system can contain up to 70% of blood in the circulation. This reservoir of blood allows veins to adjust the volume of blood returning to the heart at any one time, therefore altering cardiac output.

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Vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries (5-HT receptor - Sumatriptan)

Reference Number: B028

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: Sumatriptan
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assess whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with sumatriptan as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in denuded human coronary arteries (5-HT receptor)

Reference Number: B030

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Coronary Artery (Healthy - Denuded)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: 5-HT
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in denuded human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (PDE3 receptor)

Reference Number: B034

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: PDE3
Control Compound: Milrinone
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human resistance arteries with milrinone as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasodilatation in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Bradykinin receptor)

Reference Number: B035

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: Bradykinin receptor
Control Compound: Bradykinin
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human resistance arteries with bradykinin as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vascular permeability in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4 receptors)

Reference Number: B036

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4 receptors
Control Compound: Thrombin
Study Type: Perfusion myography
Functional Endpoint: Vascular permeability

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause an increase in vascular permeability in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with thrombin as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ-specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasoconstriction in atherosclerotic human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Angiotensin receptor)

Reference Number: B037

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Resistance Artery (Atherosclerotic)
Target: Angiotensin receptor
Control Compound: PDA-angiotensin 1
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries with PDA-angiotensin 1 as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ-specific blood flow throughout the body and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Atherosclerosis is the formation of fatty lesions or fibrous plaques in the smooth muscle of arteries. This causes a narrowing of the vessels, an increase in blood pressure and an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

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Vasodilatation in ischaemic human subcutaneous resistance arteries (Nitric oxide donor)

Reference Number: B038

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Ischaemic)
Target: Nitric oxide donor
Control Compound: SNP
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in ischaemic human subcutaneous resistance arteries with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ-specific blood flow throughout the body and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Ischaemia is a period of time with restricted blood flow, which can potentially lead to irreversible tissue. Ischeamia can be caused by a variety of disorders such as atherosclerosis, tachycardia or hypotension. Biopta can source arteries from tissues that have been exposed to these conditions.

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Vasodilatation in human skeletal muscle arteries (Acetycholine receptor)

Reference Number: B039

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Skeletal Muscle Artery (Healthy)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Acetylcholine
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human skeletal muscle arteries with acetylcholine as a reference compound.

The skeletal muscle vasculature is the largest vascular bed in the body, therefore changes in skeletal blood flow and pressure can directly affect peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Vasodilatation in human skeletal muscle arteries (Nitric oxide donor)

Reference Number: B040

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Skeletal Muscle Artery (Healthy)
Target: Nitric oxide donor
Control Compound: SNP
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasodilatation in human skeletal muscle arteries with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a reference compound.

Blood flow in skeletal muscle is directly affected by the level of activity of each muscle. Skeletal muscle arteries are involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure as skeletal muscle vasculature is the largest vascular bed in the body, therefore changes in skeletal blood flow and pressure can directly affect atrial pressure.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial pectinate muscle (Adrenoceptors - Isoprenaline)

Reference Number: B043

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Atrial Pectinate Muscle (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause a change in contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial pectinate muscle with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

Additional analyses can be undertaken to report on the rate of both contraction (dF/dt) and relaxation (-dF/dt). Pectinate muscles are mainly located in the right atrium of the heart. The muscles function to allow the atria to dilate without increased wall stress and also allow an increase in the volume of the atria.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human ventricular trabeculae muscle (5-HT receptor)

Reference Number: B047

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Ventricular Trabeculae Muscle (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: 5-HT
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause an increase in contractile force in electrically stimulated human ventricular muscle with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Additional analyses can be undertaken to report on the rate of both contraction (dF/dt) and rate of relaxation (-dF/dt). Ventricular muscle functions to control the flow of blood into and out of the ventricles. The ventricles are responsible for pumping blood either to the lungs or to the rest of the body in the systemic circulation. Any alterations to ventricular contractility can affect cardiac output as well as the workload on the heart.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial pectinate muscle (5-HT receptor)

Reference Number: B048

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Atrial Pectinate Muscle (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: 5-HT
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause an increase in contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial muscle with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Additional analyses can be undertaken to report on the rate of both contraction (dF/dt) and rate of relaxation (-dF/dt). Ventricular muscle functions to control the flow of blood into and out of the ventricles. The ventricles are responsible for pumping blood either to the lungs or to the rest of the body in the systemic circulation. Any alterations to ventricular contractility can affect cardiac output as well as the workload on the heart.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial pectinate muscle (Adrenoceptors - Salbutamol)

Reference Number: B049

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Atrial Pectinate Muscle (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Salbutamol
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human atrial pectinate muscle (PDE3 receptor)

Reference Number: B050

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Atrial Pectinate Muscle (Healthy)
Target: PDE3
Control Compound: Milrinone
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Coronary arteries are the blood supply to the myocardium. Changes in blood flow and vascular tone can greatly affect cardiac function; even a brief reduction in coronary blood flow can induce dysfunction of the heart.

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Bronchodilatation in secondary healthy human airways (Adrenoceptor - Isoprenaline)

Reference Number: B052

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in healthy human airways with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchoconstriction in secondary asthmatic human airways (Acetylcholine receptor)

Reference Number: B053

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Asthmatic)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Carbachol
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchoconstriction

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchoconstriction in asthmatic human airways with carbachol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Asthma involves both large and small airways and is characterised by inflammation, predominantly mediated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, in the airways and reversible smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm).

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Bronchodilatation in secondary asthmatic human airways (Adrenoceptor)

Reference Number: B054

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Asthmatic)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Salbutamol
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in asthmatic human airways with salbutamol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Asthma involves both large and small airways and is characterised by inflammation, predominantly mediated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, in the airways and reversible smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm).

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Bronchoconstriction in tertiary or lower healthy human airways (Prostanoid receptor)

Reference Number: B055

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Prostanoid receptor
Control Compound: U46619
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchoconstriction

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchoconstriction in healthy human airways with U46619 as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower healthy human airways (Adrenoceptor - Salbutamol)

Reference Number: B056

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Salbutamol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in healthy human airways with salbutamol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchoconstriction in tertiary or lower healthy human airways (Acetylcholine receptor)

Reference Number: B057

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Acetylcholine
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchoconstriction

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchoconstriction in healthy human airways with acetylcholine as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower healthy human airways (Adrenoceptor - Isoprenaline)

Reference Number: B058

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in healthy human airways with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in secondary COPD human airways (Adrenoceptor)

Reference Number: B059

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (COPD)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in COPD human airways with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the term given to a collection of airway disorders including bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is generally caused by an obstruction to airflow caused by a narrowing of the airways. Over time, the damage to the airways such as scarring, increased mucus and loss of elasticity also contribute to the restricted airflow and increased workload for the respiratory muscles.

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Bronchoconstriction in denuded secondary healthy human airways (Acetylcholine receptor)

Reference Number: B060

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Healthy - Denuded)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Carbachol
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchoconstriction

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchoconstriction in denuded human airways with carbachol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchoconstriction in denuded secondary healthy human airways (Histamine receptor)

Reference Number: B061

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Healthy - Denuded)
Target: Histamine receptor
Control Compound: Histamine
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchoconstriction

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchoconstriction in denuded human airways with histamine as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Ion channel function in healthy human tracheal mucosa (Adrenoceptors)

Reference Number: B062

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Trachea (Mucosa) (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Ussing chamber
Functional Endpoint: Ion channel function

This assay asseses whether a test compound causes a change in short circuit current across healthy human tracheal mucosa with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Ion channel function in healthy human tracheal mucosa (Sodium channels)

Reference Number: B063

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Trachea (Mucosa) (Healthy)
Target: Sodium channels
Control Compound: Amiloride
Study Type: Ussing chamber
Functional Endpoint: Ion channel function

This assay asseses whether a test compound causes a change in short circuit current across healthy human tracheal mucosa with amiloride as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower human airways (Adrenoceptors - Formoterol)

Reference Number: B065

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Formoterol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in human airways with formoterol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower human airways (Adrenoceptors - Salbutamol)

Reference Number: B066

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Healthy)
Target:  
Control Compound: Salbutamol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in human airways with salbutamol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower asthmatic human airways (Adrenoceptor - Formoterol)

Reference Number: B067

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Asthmatic)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Formoterol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in asthmatic human airways with formoterol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Asthma involves both large and small airways and is characterised by inflammation, predominantly mediated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, in the airways and reversible smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm).

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower asthmatic human airways (Adrenoceptor - Salbutamol)

Reference Number: B068

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Asthmatic)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Salbutamol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in asthmatic human airways with salbutamol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Asthma involves both large and small airways and is characterised by inflammation, predominantly mediated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, in the airways and reversible smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm).

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Bronchodilatation in tertiary or lower asthmatic human airways (Adrenoceptor - Salmeterol)

Reference Number: B069

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Tertiary Or Lower Airways (Asthmatic)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Salmeterol
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

This assay assesses whether test compounds cause bronchodilation in asthmatic human airways with salmeterol as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow. Asthma involves both large and small airways and is characterised by inflammation, predominantly mediated by lymphocytes and eosinophils, in the airways and reversible smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm).

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Relaxation in human bladder (Adrenoceptor - Isoproterenol)

Reference Number: B070

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Bladder (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoproterenol
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Relaxation

This assay assesses whether test articles cause relaxation in isolated human bladder strips, with isoproterenol as a reference compound.

The primary function of the bladder is the storage of urine before micturition. The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle controls the emptying and filling of the bladder. Alterations to the anatomy of the bladder can affect filling and emptying, causing disorders such as incontinence and bladder hypertrophy.

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Relaxation in human ureter (Adrenoceptor - Isoprenaline)

Reference Number: B071

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Ureter (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Relaxation

This assay assesses whether test carticles cause relaxation in isolated human ureter, with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The ureter connects the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The ureter has a smooth muscle layer which propels urine to the bladder, via peristalsis, a phenomenon that can be observed in vitro.

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Contraction in human urethra (Adrenoceptor - Phenylephrine)

Reference Number: B072

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Urethra (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Phenylephrine
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contraction

This assay assesses whether test articles cause contraction in isolated human urethra, with phenylephrine as a reference compound.

The urethra is essential for the passage of urine and semen (males). Any changes to the urethra, such as prostate hypertrophy, can affect the passage of these substances.

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Contraction in human uterus (Vasopressin & Oxytocin Receptor - Oxytocin)

Reference Number: B078

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Uterus (Healthy)
Target: Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors
Control Compound: Oxytocin
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contraction

This assay assesses whether test articles cause an increase in spontaneous activity in isolated human uterine tissue with oxytocin as a reference compound.

The uterus is one of the female reproductive organs. The main functions of the uterus are to provide a suitable site for an implanting blastocyst, to expand with the growing foetus and to contract strongly to expel the foetus. Alterations to the anatomy of the uterus may adversely affect its functionality.

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Contraction in human uterus (Vasopressin & Oxytocin Receptor - Vasopressin)

Reference Number: B079

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Uterus (Healthy)
Target: Vasopressin & oxytocin receptors
Control Compound: Vasopressin
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contraction

This assay assesses whether test articles cause an increase in spontaneous activity in isolated human uterine tissue with vasopressin as a reference compound.

The uterus is one of the female reproductive organs. The main functions of the uterus are to provide a suitable site for an implanting blastocyst, to expand with the growing foetus and to contract strongly to expel the foetus. Alterations to the anatomy of the uterus may adversely affect its functionality.

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Relaxation in human uterus (Nitric Oxide Donor)

Reference Number: B081

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Uterus (Healthy)
Target: Nitric oxide donor
Control Compound: SNP
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Relaxation

This assay assesses whether test articles cause a reduction in spontaneous activity in isolated human uterine tissue, with sodium nitroprusside as a reference compound.

The uterus is one of the female reproductive organs. The main functions of the uterus are to provide a suitable site for an implanting blastocyst, to expand with the growing foetus and to contract strongly to expel the foetus. Alterations to the anatomy of the uterus may adversely affect its functionality.

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Relaxation in human uterus (Adrenoceptor - Isoprenaline)

Reference Number: B082

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Uterus (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Relaxation

This assay assesses whether test articles cause a reduction in spontaneous activity in isolated human uterine tissue, with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

The uterus is one of the female reproductive organs. The main functions of the uterus are to provide a suitable site for an implanting blastocyst, to expand with the growing foetus and to contract strongly to expel the foetus. Alterations to the anatomy of the uterus may adversely affect its functionality.

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Relaxation in human uterus (Calcium Channels)

Reference Number: B083

Assay type: GU
Tissue: Human Uterus (Healthy)
Target: Calcium channels
Control Compound: Isradipine
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Relaxation

This assay assesses whether test articles cause a reduction in spontaneous activity in isolated human uterine tissue, with isradipine as a reference compound.

The uterus is one of the female reproductive organs. The main functions of the uterus are to provide a suitable site for an implanting blastocyst, to expand with the growing foetus and to contract strongly to expel the foetus. Alterations to the anatomy of the uterus may adversely affect its functionality.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human colon (Acetylcholine Esterase)

Reference Number: B086

Assay type: GI Tract
Tissue: Human Stomach (Healthy)
Target: Acetylcholine esterase
Control Compound: Galantamine
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay asseses whether test articles cause a change in contractile force on electrically stimulated human stomach, with galantamine as a reference compound.

The large intestine (colon) is essential for the absorption of fluid and electrolytes and the production of solid faeces. Changes in the anatomy or function of the large intestine can lead to disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diarrhoea and Ulcerative Colitis.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human colon (Opioid & Opioid like receptors)

Reference Number: B087

Assay type: GI Tract
Tissue: Human Colon
Target: Opioid & opioid-like receptors
Control Compound: Meptazinol
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay asseses whether test articles cause a change in contractile force on electrically stimulated human colon circular smooth muscle, with meptazinol as a reference compound.

The large intestine (colon) is essential for the absorption of fluid and electrolytes and the production of solid faeces. Changes in the anatomy or function of the large intestine can lead to disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diarrhoea and Ulcerative Colitis.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human stomach (Motilin receptor)

Reference Number: B092

Assay type: GI Tract
Tissue: Human Stomach (Healthy)
Target: Motilin receptor
Control Compound: Erythromycin
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay asseses whether test articles cause a change in contractile force in electrically stimulated human stomach, with erythromycin as a reference compound.

When a bolus of food enters the stomach; its contents and the distention of the gastric wall cause the secretion of various compounds, such as H+, pepsinogen, HCO3 and mucus. These secretions are essential for the initial digestion of proteins and the protection of the stomach mucosa. Movement of the stomach is essential for the mixing of the stomach contents with gastric juices and to move the partially digested food from the stomach into the intestines.

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Permeability in healthy human gastrointestinal mucosa

Reference Number: B093

Assay type: GI Tract
Tissue: Human Gastrointestinal Mucosa
Target: N/A
Control Compound: Multiple
Study Type: Ussing chamber
Functional Endpoint: Permeability

This assay assesses the permeability of test articles across healthy human gastrointestinal mucosa.

It is possible to assess permeability across multiple regions of the GI system. The intestines are essential for the digestion of food and the absorption of fluid and electrolytes. changes in the anatomy or function of the intestines can lead to disorders such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Crohns, Ulcerative Colitis and diarrhoea.

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Ion channel function in isolated healthy human gastrointestinal mucosa (Chloride channels)

Reference Number: B094

Assay type: GI Tract
Tissue: Human Gastrointestinal Mucosa (Healthy)
Target: Chloride channels
Control Compound: Cholera toxin
Study Type: Ussing chamber
Functional Endpoint: Ion channel function

This assay assesses whether test articles cause a change in short circuit current across healthy human gastrointestinal mucosa.

It is possible to assess ion channel function across multiple regions of the GI system. The intestines are essential for the digestion of foor and the absorption of fluid and electrolytes. Changes in the anatomy or function of the intestines can lead to disorders such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Crohns, Ulcerative Colitis and diarrhoea.

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Contractile force in electrically stimulated human ventricular trabeculae muscle (adrenoceptor)

Reference Number: B095

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Ventricular Trabeculae Muscle (Healthy)
Target: Adrenoceptor
Control Compound: Isoprenaline
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay assesses whether test articles cause an increase in contractile force in electrically stimulated human ventricular trabeculae, with isoprenaline as a reference compound.

Additional analyses can be undertaken to report on the rate of both contraction (dF/dt) and rate of relaxation (-dF/dt). Ventricular muscle functions to control the flow of blood into and out of the ventricles. The ventricles are responsible for pumping blood either to the lungs or to the rest of the body in the systemic circulation. Any alterations to ventricular contractility can affect cardiac output as well as the workload on the heart.

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Contractile force in eletrically stimulated human ventricular trabeculae muscle (acetylcholine receptor)

Reference Number: B096

Assay type: Cardiac Muscle
Tissue: Human Ventricular Trabeculae Muscle (Healthy)
Target: Acetylcholine receptor
Control Compound: Acetylcholine
Study Type: EFS organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Contractile force

This assay assesses whether test articles cause a decrease in contractile force in electrically stimulated human ventricular trabeculae, with acetylcholine as a reference compound.

Additional analyses can be undertaken to report on the rate of both contraction (dF/dt) and rate of relaxation (-dF/dt). Ventricular muscle functions to control the flow of blood into and out of the ventricles. The ventricles are responsible for pumping blood either to the lungs or to the rest of the body in the systemic circulation. Any alterations to ventricular contractility can affect cardiac output as well as the workload on the heart.

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Vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries (5-HT receptor)

Reference Number: B097

Assay type: Blood Vessels
Tissue: Human Subcutaneous Resistance Artery (Healthy)
Target: 5-HT receptor
Control Compound: 5-HT
Study Type: Wire Myography
Functional Endpoint: Vasoconstriction

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause vasoconstriction in human subcutaneous resistance arteries, with 5-HT as a reference compound.

Resistance arteries are involved in regulating organ specific blood flow and offer the greatest resistance to blood flowing into tissues. Resistance arteries therefore play an important role in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure.

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Bronchodilatation in healthy human secondary airways (VIP & PACAP receptors)

Reference Number: B098

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Healthy)
Target: VIP & PACAP
Control Compound: Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause bronchodilatation in isolated healthy human secondary airways with Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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Bronchoconstriction in healthy human tertiary or lower airways (lopoxin, oxoeiconsanoid and resolvin E1)

Reference Number: B099

Assay type: Respiratory
Tissue: Human Secondary Airways (Healthy)
Target: VIP & PACAP
Control Compound: Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)
Study Type: Organ bath
Functional Endpoint: Bronchodilatation

The experiment assesses whether test articles cause bronchoconstriction in isolated healthy human tertiary or lower airways, with Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) as a reference compound.

The airways of the respiratory tract offer resistance to the flow of air during inhalation and expiration. Any alterations to the airways (for example contractile state, increased mucus or inflammation of the airways) can affect airflow and gas exchange.

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IBD culture study Crohn's or ulcerative colitis (UC)

Reference Number: B106

Tissue: Human GI Mucosal Explants (IBD)
Target: p38 MAP Kinase
Control Compound: BIRB796
Study Type: Ex vivo Cultures
Functional Endpoint: Inflammation

This experiment assesses whether test articles cause a reduction in TNF-alpha release with BIRBR796 as a reference compound.

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